Sunday, May 24, 2020

Conservative John Birch Society Was Ridiculed But Had Political Impact

The John Birch Society was a political group on the extreme right that emerged in the late 1950s, determined to continue the anti-communist crusade of the late Senator Joseph McCarthy. The organization took positions which mainstream America regarded as outlandish.  As a result, it was often mocked and satirized. The organization, which took its name from an American killed by the communist Chinese at the end of World War II, was founded in 1958 by Robert Welch, who had made a fortune in the candy business. Welch organized the group into many regional chapters which  spread his offbeat views while exerting political influence at the local level. In early 1960s the John Birch Society was embroiled in a number of newsworthy controversies. And in the 1964 campaign of Barry Goldwater the influence of the groups hardcore ideology was evident. Historian Richard Hofstadter, in a famous 1964 essay titled The Paranoid Style In American Politics, cited the John Birch Society as a modern example of a political group using fear and a feeling of persecution as an organizing principle. Despite criticism from the mainstream, the group continued to grow. In 1968, on the 10th anniversary of its founding, the New York Times, in a front-page article, noted that it claimed to have 60,000 to 100,000 members. It was producing a radio show that aired on 100 stations nationwide, had opened its own chain of bookstores, and was provided staunch anti-communist speakers to address groups. Over time the John Birch Society seemed to fade into obscurity. Yet some of the extremist positions, as well as the tactics of the organization, wended  their way into more mainstream conservative political groups. Traces of the groups ideology can be spotted in conservative circles today. Accusations from conservative pundits during the Trump administration that a Deep State is subverting democracy are  eerily similar to conspiracy theories about hidden forces behind the U.S. government promoted by the John Birch Society decades earlier. And talk of globalists manipulating the American economy echoes talk of pernicious internationalists in John Birch Society literature. Founding of the John Birch Society Following the death of Senator Joseph McCarthy in 1957, his followers, who fervently believed the United States was not only threatened, but actively infiltrated, by a worldwide communist conspiracy, were adrift. A businessman in Massachusetts, Robert Welch, who had made his fortune by organizing distribution channels in the candy business, called a meeting of other anti-communist activists. At a two-day gathering at a home in Indiana, Welch laid out his plans. He claimed the other attendees were 11 businessmen who had traveled from all regions of the United States, though they were never identified. In a rambling monologue, portions of which were later published and distributed, Welch essentially gave his version of world history. He asserted that a group that formed in Bavaria in the late 1700s, called the Illuminati, had helped spur the French Revolution and other world events, including World War I. Welch claimed that a secret group of international bankers had created the American Federal Reserve system, and controlled the American economy. Welchs exotic and convoluted theories of history seemed unlikely to gain acceptance with a wide audience. Yet his plan was to couple his dire warnings of secret agendas with the organizational skills he had developed in his business career. In essence, Welch proposed creating local chapters of the John Birch Society which would function much the way a neighborhood store would have retailed candy. His political ideas, geared to an audience of wary Americans during the Cold War, would be promoted at the local level. An early Cold War incident inspired the name of Welchs new organization. While researching a book, Welch had come across the story of an American intelligence officer who was also a Christian missionary in China during World War II. At the end of the war, the American officer, John Birch, had been captured and executed by communist Chinese forces. (Government records disputed Welchs account of Birchs death, which prompted Welch to claim pro-communist elements in the U.S. government had suppressed the facts.) Welch considered Birch to be the first casualty of Americas struggle against worldwide communism. By using Birchs name as a rallying cry, Welch sought to make resistance to communist infiltration the central mission of his organization. Public Perception The new organization found a receptive audience among politically conservative Americans who were opposed to changes taking place in America. The John Birch Society was fixated on a perceived communist menace, but it broadened that to include generally liberal ideas going back to the New Deal of the 1930s. In opposition to the landmark Brown vs. Board of Education ruling, Welch and his followers opposed the desegregation of schools. Members of the John Birch Society, often at local school boards, declared that integrated schools were part of the communist plot to weaken America. Wherever John Birch Society chapters appeared  there seemed to be controversy. Members accused local officials of being communist dupes or outright communists. By early 1961 news articles about the group were becoming common, and church groups, labor unions, and prominent politicians, began denouncing the organization as dangerous and anti-American. At various times Welch and his followers attacked Eleanor Roosevelt and former presidents Truman and Eisenhower. As part of its agenda against integration and liberal ideas in general, the group promoted the idea of impeaching, Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. The groups billboards proclaiming Impeach Earl Warren appeared beside American highways. In early 1961 an American general, Edwin Walker, was accused of distributing John Birch Society literature to soldiers stationed in Europe. President John F. Kennedy was asked about the Walker situation during a press conference on April 21, 1961. Kennedy at first avoided mentioning the John Birch Society directly, but a reporter pressed him on it. Kennedy gave an answer:. Well, I dont think that their judgments are based on accurate information of the kinds of challenges that we face. I think we face an extremely serious and intensified struggle with the Communists. But I am not sure that the John Birch Society is wrestling with the real problems which are created by the Communist advance around the world. After citing  a number of points of conflicts with communist nations and guerrillas around the globe, Kennedy concluded: And I would hope all those who are concerned about the advance of communism would face that problem and not concern themselves with the loyalty of President Eisenhower, President Truman, or Mrs [Franklin D.] Roosevelt or myself or someone else. The following day, the New York Times published an editorial denouncing the John Birch Society as a addition to the lunatic fringe of American life. The editorial contained scathing remarks:   Lost in a world of fantasy, the John Birchers are busily looking for Communists in the White House, the Supreme Court, the classrooms, and presumably under the bed. Skepticism of the organization wasnt restricted to the nations elite press. A dispute over the group even became part of pop music history. Bob Dylan wrote a song, Talkin John Birch Paranoid Blues, which poked fun at the group. Invited to perform on the Ed Sullivan Show in May 1963, the 21-year-old Dylan intended to sing that particular song. CBS Television executives, apparently fearful of offending pro-Birch viewers, wouldnt let him. Dylan refused to sing another song, and during the programs dress rehearsal he walked out of the studio. He never did appear on the Ed Sullivan Show. Impact On the Mainstream Much of America might have scoffed at the John Birch Society, but within the Republican Party the group was exerting pressure.   The presidential campaign of Republican nominee and stalwart conservative Barry Goldwater was influenced by the John Birch Society. Goldwater himself never explicitly aligned himself with the group, but in his famous line at the 1964 Republican National Convention, Extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice, many heard echoes of the John Birch Society. As American society changed in the 1960s, the John Birch Society continued to rail against the Civil Rights Movement. Yet Robert Welch refused to support Americas involvement in Vietnam, as he contended it was being sabotaged by communists within the United States government. Familiar themes of the John Birch Society became part of the campaign of independent presidential candidate George Wallace in 1968. Following the 1960s, the organization seemed to fade into irrelevance. Mainstream conservatives such as William F. Buckley had denounced its extreme views, and as the conservative movement transformed itself leading up to the  1980 election of Ronald Reagan, it kept a distance from Robert Welch and his followers. Welch died in 1985. He had retired from the organization he founded after suffering a stroke in 1983. Legacy of the John Birch Society To many Americans, the John Birch Society was a peculiar relic from the 1960s which had faded away. But the organization still exists, and it can be argued that some of its extremist rhetoric, which drew jeers decades ago, has seeped into the mainstream of the conservative movement. Accusations about government conspiracies which are regularly touted in venues such as Fox News or conservative talk radio do seem similar to conspiracy theories that once circulated in books and pamphlets published by the John Birch Society. The most prominent proponent of conspiracy theories today, Alex Jones, on whose program Donald Trump appeared as a presidential candidate, routinely  echoes longstanding John Birch Society assertions. In the summer of 2017 Politico published an article about John Birch Society chapters in Texas. According to the report, the groups members had been successful in getting the Texas legislature to introduce bills aimed at such things as restricting suspected United Nations activities in Texas and curtailing the rumored spread of Sharia Law in America. The article contended that the John Birch Society was alive and well, and the group was gaining new members.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Essay on Physiological Disorders - 2646 Words

Physiological disorders: In this assignment I am going to describe two physiological disorder in details, the details that I am going to go into is what the disorder is, signs and symptoms, cause of the disorder, physiological changes as a result of treatment and the factors influencing the development of the disorder, explain the signs and symptoms related to two named physiological disorders, describe the investigations that care carried out to enable the diagnosis of these physiological disorders and assess possible difficulties involved in the diagnosis of the disorders from their signs and symptoms. P1 The two physiological disorders that I am going to talk about are Diabetes and Asthma. Diabetes: What is diabetes?†¦show more content†¦In type 1 is risks will mostly be if it’s genetically. In the family, if anyone that has type 1 diabetes it could be a parent or sibling. Genetics, when checked through clinical trials to see if someone who has a family history of the type. Geography, people living in different places might be affected with diabetes more than someone living in London. Viral experience may trigger the virus if the cells are infected. Low vitamin D levels, like when early drinking of cow’s milk because that’s the common foundation of vitamin D. Other dietary factors like Omega 3 fatty acids offer protection against type 1 diabetes. In type 2 the risks are more to do with obesity and looking after yourself physically and mentally, the older you get you might become obese, lack of exercise not being active and being lazy and overweight. Your diet, when you’re eating unhealthy food all the time. Any family history where you cannot do much about your genetic history but you have been aware and you are ready. As you get older it seems to find you, as you age type 2 diabetes develop as the pancreas pumps less insulin and high blood pressure and high cholesterol are the two major symptoms of pre diabetes. Asthma: What is asthma? 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Both Sides of Gun Control in the United States

Usually when people think about guns they think about crime. But are the two really related? Do guns really lead to crime? And if they do, do laws that restrict firearm ownership and the use of guns stop the crime or protect people? These are the questions many politicians are asking themselves when creating gun control laws. The debate over gun control is nothing new. As you can see this debate still goes on today and is the cause for the beginning of gun control laws. Guns are extremely powerful weapons. They can cause destruction, harm or even death. They can be used to defend and protect or to threaten and kill. However you look at it, guns are powerful instruments, not only physically but socially. As high school students it is†¦show more content†¦Though they are different between each state, there are some basic federal laws that are working nationwide. These include that no person convicted of a crime can own a gun, a person must be 21 or older to purchase a handgun and that ?persons who engage in the business of buying or selling firearms must be licensed? (NRA). One of the laws having the biggest impact was the 1993 Brady Handgun Control Act which is now in affect in 32 states. This act requires a waiting period for the purchase of a handgun and a background check system to ensure against the possession of guns by felons. The effects of gun control laws have been highly effective but they don?t stop people from trying to get a firearm. The Brady Handgun Control Act made it more difficult to purchase and own a gun. Pro-gun affiliates see gun control laws as a way for the government to dictate the people. The real question is, Who should own a gun and what restrictions should they have to be able to keep it? This question is important to everyone related to the issue. Weapons have a big role in everyone?s lives. 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Gun Control, are a set of laws and policies of transfer, ownershipRead MoreAn Informative Essay on Gun Control1289 Words   |  5 Pages Due date Informative Essay on Gun Control Introduction The right to possess guns is a fundamental element to American identity. The right to own and operate guns under certain circumstances is in fact guaranteed as part of the United States Constitution. Over the course of American history and particularly in the 21st century, there exists a great debate over the possession of guns of private citizens. Both sides of the debate argue with fervor. There are those that argue fervently for

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Social Role Theory free essay sample

One of the many theories in history is social role theory suggested by both Orville Brim and Talcott Parsons (Newman and Newman, 2012). Both sociologists believed socialization and personality development was the result of participation (Newman and Newman, 2012) in social roles they had in life, and they defined those roles as behaviors that had a socially agreed upon function and accepted code of norms. One could say that behavior was influenced by social positions. Brim and Parsons idea of social of roles came from theatre, and they purported that individuals in society occupied similar social positions in life (Newman and Newman, 2012). People’s performance in these social roles or positions is determined by demands, rules, and the reactions of others in response to their roles. According to Brim and Parsons, social role theory has three elements (Newman and Newman, 2012) of concern that apply to social life. These include social roles, role enactment, and role expectations (Newman and Newman). Social roles are the roles we play in life such as employee, mother, or child. We may have many different roles in our lives, and, as we get older or our situations change, we may take on more. For example, when a married woman has a child, she then has the role of both wife and caretaker. If she later joins the workforce, she assumes the role of worker in addition to the roles she already has. She then acts or has a part in the play of worker, mother, and wife. The second element of social role is role enactment, which is the behavior that serves as the outcome of the role (Newman and Newman). With enactment being the conduct of the person’s role, the last element is role expectation which is the performance of the actor’s role. The actor must know or learn his or her obligations and duties. For example sixteen year old with a new driver’s license has the role of driver and the  responsibilities that come with it. As people enter into and modify each of their roles, they modify their behavior to conform to the expectations, and each role is linked to several reciprocal roles (Newman and Newman, 2012). For example, a parent and a child, a bully and a victim, or a doctor and a patient reciprocal roles. Each role is partly defined by the roles that support it and the function of the role by its surrounding role groups (Newman and Newman, 2012). Almost everyone balances multiple commitments to a spouse, children, job, parents, and friends (Newman and Newman, 2012). Once a person has decided on a position or positions in life, the demands of their roles may cause further restraints. This could result in role overload, role conflict, or role spillover (Newman and Newman, 2001). When the actor’s part has too many demands and there is not enough time allowed to meet them, it is known as overload. For example, employees may have to take on the extra work and meet the same deadline of an employee who left the company creating overload for everyone. When we find ourselves pulled in too many directions from the roles we play in life (expectations), it may create role conflict. It can also happen when we go from one role to many or are forced to make choices between them. Sometimes we have to compromise with our roles and it creates conflict because it doesn’t satisfy either one. For example, similar to conflict is spillover, which happens when one role prevents us from carrying out the demands of another role (Newman and Newman, 2012). Evaluation Role strain is similar to role conflict and is often defined as difficulty meeting roles or balancing competing role demands (Newman and Newman, 2012). Many of today’s single parents or working parents experience role strain. According to Scharlach (2001), todays employees are faced with greater work and family responsibilities than ever before. With most parents in the paid workforce, having children under the age of six difficulties can be experienced by working these parents as they attempt to balance competing demands of employment and childrearing (Scharlach, 2001). Additionally, more than 70% of working parents expressed stress as a result of conflict between their work and family roles (Scharlach, 200). Role strain happens when it is too hard to cope with work and family demands because of lack of resources.  Schedules and hours often fall into work related variables while division of household labor and time spent in caregiving fall into family variables (Lee, Vernon-Feagans, Vazquez, and Kolak, 2003). Research has shown that role strain is more likely to affect women in dual-earner families as women often shoulder more of the responsibilities of both the home and the family. Furthermore, this unequal division of labor increases the risk of spillover from one role to the other for women (Lee et al., 2003). Researchers interested in the roles of family have begun to look at the effects of parental role strain on child functioning. According to Lee et al. (2003), families with lower role conflict and more emotional expressiveness and organization have been found to function better. One of the major factors affecting the structure of family in recent years has been the increase in single parenting families, 90% of which are headed by women (Burden, 2001). In spite of increased employment opportunities for women, one issue still facing single mothers and their children today is poverty. Single females who balance the role of caregiver and worker experience a great deal of emotional difficulty (strain) as they only have themselves to rely on for a source of income. Single women who are parents often maintain their performance both at work and home at the expense of their physical and emotional well-being (Burden, 2001). Two Strengths and Weaknesses One strength of role theory is the idea that individuals take on roles as they move from one life stage to another. In a sense, if they are expected to fill certain roles in life, they will. For example, as a child reaches the age related to high school, they will take on the roles related to high school student and demonstrate relevant skills (Newman and Newman, 2012). Doing his homework on time, passing his courses, and maybe electing to participate in a sport or school club shows he understands his role. It can also happen in teams, organizations, and societies, if the company is using role theory to help employees succeed in a positive way. The power of role theory is recognizable and social roles provide consistency to life experience and prompts opportunities for new learning (Newman and Newman, 2012). Although the above mentioned can be positive, it’s worth mentioning  that role theory rests on the assumption that many people want affirmation and they seek this by conforming. People behave in a way that is expected, even if it is not what the individual wants. This can be the divorced parent, single parent, peacemaker, workaholic, responsible one, or victim. Newman and Newman (2012), also suggest that personal involvement in relationships contribute to ones formation of social identity. Individuals who are members of groups that suffer discrimination and injustice may make radical shifts in their lives in a desire to move to another system with a more rewarding role. Cul tural Competence Social role theory uses a structural approach rather than a cultural approach in that family, organizations, and communities have caused different behavior in men and women (Dulin, 2007). Perception is that roles are based on gender and stereotypical gender roles are forms by social norms that apply people of certain social positions (Dulin, 2007). In other words, society has shared expectations of women, and these expectations form gender roles for both women and men (Dulin, 2007). As a result, people tend to do what is expected of them or act in ways that the roles imply, resulting in a perpetuation of sex differences. Division of labor was the possible culprit that designated the differences between males and females inducing gender role expectations and sex-typed beliefs and behaviors (Dulin, 2007). However, as women progress in the work world, certain stereotypes are disappearing and or changing (Dulin, 2007). One limitation to sole role theory may be that it’s not as relevant to today’s culture as it may have been in the 1980’s (Dulin, 2007). With gender roles not being as pronounced or defined as 20 years ago social role theory does not appear culturally competent in today’s society. Social Policy Implication Throughout history social role theory has recognized a division of labor with women as caretakers at home and men assuming responsibilities outside the home. With increased single parenting in recent decades, primary implications for government policy relate to the situation of parent employees as a whole, females in particular, since they have responsibility of both family and job (Burden, 2001). Female single parents receive lower salaries, work longer hours at combined job and home responsibilities, and  experience greater job-family role strain and lower levels emotional well-being (Burden, 2001). With almost half the workforce now comprising women, policy needs to include incentives to lessen the inequality currently experienced by women in the workforce (Burden, 2001). Current policy has been based on traditional families of woman’s role of child bearer and man’s role as breadwinner. Therefore, policies need to address the demand and supply side of discrimination against women and single parents in the work place (Burden, 2001). Demand policies would include affirmative action, on the job training to increase mobility, and programs to provide support to parent employees. Supply policies would include childcare programs, employment and training programs, and enforcement of child support to improve economic status (Burden, 2001). Social Role Theory and Psychosocial Theory Though I see the importance of social role, I believe I would use psychosocial theory more in my career as a social worker. I can understand Brim and Talcott’s approach of people as actors with a part to play and having a script to follow (Newman and Newman, 2001). However, Erikson’s theory is clearer to me. With regard to human development, psychosocial development addresses growth across the life span, assumes individuals have the capacity to contribute to their own psychological development at each stage, and takes into consideration culture for individual growth (Newman and Newman, 2001). Erikson purports there are 8 stages of development, and if each stage is completed well Erickson suggests a new sense of mastery or competence in life. This does not mean, however, that a person cannot function if a stage or level has not been achieved or reached. This would be true in the case of single parents experiencing difficulty balancing numerous responsibilities. In future practice I would be sure to look at what stage of development the individual was in, or possibly reverting back to. Resolving psychosocial crisis and coping behaviors would be key elements in working with struggling single parent families.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Karl Marx and the Communist Manifesto essays

Karl Marx and the Communist Manifesto essays Karl Marx's The Communist Manifesto forecasted the downfall of capitalism and the rise of communism. It predicted that the communist revolution was most likely to take place first in Britain or Germany because of their high population of proletarian factory workers. However, he was proved incorrect because these factory workers were happy with their conditions and felt no need to revolt. The Communist Manifesto appeals mostly to the lowest of the lower class, what he called the "proletariat". The idea of a communist society is that everything is owned by the state. People are paid "from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs"; meaning that depending on how many people the salary must support is the determining factor in the size of the paycheck. This would appeal to the proletariats because it would put them on equal footing with everyone else. The abolishment of a class system benefited them greatly. Marx reasoned that his ideas appealed most to the working class, therefore it would catch on in countries with large populations of working-class people, i.e. Germany and Britain. The reason that a communist revolution did not take place in Britain is due simply to Marx's timing. The Communist Manifesto was published in 1848, but the ideas of Marxism did not catch on until the 1870s-80s. When it was first published, the British Industrial Revolution had already started. When its popularity began to rise, it did not catch on in England because working conditions in the English factories had improved drastically from what they had once been. The "oppressed" people Marx was trying to appeal to in 1848 did not feel oppressed when they were being informed of the communist ideals, so, therefore, they had no reason to revolt. They were happy with the way things were because they had already gotten so much better. In the 1820s-30s, when the English proletariats felt oppressed, would have been the ideal time for a revo...

Friday, February 21, 2020

The Logic of Customer Satisfaction and Retention of Hilton Group Plc Research Paper

The Logic of Customer Satisfaction and Retention of Hilton Group Plc - Research Paper Example The traditional and the conventional way of doing business are becoming obsolete as newer methods are taking up the slots and it is particularly true for the service industry. In the case of the service industry, the customer is the undoubted king and every possible measure is initiated so that the esteemed customer is not just satisfied but is happy so that he is retained as the industry knows the fact very well that it is more difficult to get hold of a new customer than to retain an existing client. The logic of customer satisfaction and retention also applies to the hotel industry and renowned hotel chain - Hilton Group, Plc is no different. In the case of a hotel group, the service offered is totally dependent upon the people and the team of the group. Therefore, there is absolutely no doubt about the fact that human resource management is one of the most crucial aspects of such organisations. In fact, in the competitive industry of today, human resource policies are not just limited with that of the employee development and handling of employee grievances but also contribute towards the customer satisfaction and thereby towards the profitability of the group. In 2001, the renowned hotel group had more than 60,000 employees across 500 hotels all over the globe, in 50 countries. For the convenience of the business, the group had divided the operations of the hotel into four different global divisions namely UK and Ireland, Europe – the Middle East and Africa, Asia Pacific and the Americas. Each of the divisions had dedicated a team of professionals to run their operations under the leadership of the Area Presidents. In the year 1999, the group joined hands with another hotel group of repute named Stakis, Plc and undertook a number of initiatives to upkeep the momentum of the employees going. The group came up with two prominent schemes namely the ‘equilibrium’ and the ‘esprit’.